Ethereum Co-Founder Vitalik Buterin Publishes ‘Plausible Roadmap’ Addressing Scalability

Ethereum Co-Founder Vitalik Buterin Publishes 'Plausible Roadmap' Addressing Scalability

In recent times the Ethereum network has received a lot of criticism about the protocol’s data transfer fees and scalability. In a blog post called “Endgame,” published on December 6, the co-founder of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin discussed plans to improve scaling, the upcoming proof-of-stake transition, and censorship resistance.

Buterin Outlines Plausible Ethereum Scaling Roadmap in Endgame Blog Post

Vitalik Buterin, the prominent co-founder of the Ethereum project, has outlined his thoughts about a “plausible roadmap” that could address the network’s scaling issues. The blog post dubbed “Endgame,” explains a few concepts like a “second tier of staking with low resource requirements,” and introducing fraud proofs or Zk-Snarks where ETH users can “cheaply” acquire block validity. The roadmap Buterin summarizes aims to improve the blockchain without giving up censorship resistance.

“What do we get after all of this is done? Buterin asks in his latest blog post. “We get a chain where block production is still centralized, but block validation is trustless and highly decentralized, and specialized anti-censorship magic prevents the block producers from censoring.” Buterin further adds:

It’s somewhat aesthetically ugly, but it does provide the basic guarantees that we are looking for: even if every single one of the primary stakers (the block producers) is intent on attacking or censoring, the worst that they could do is all go offline entirely, at which point the chain stops accepting transactions until the community pools their resources and sets up one primary-staker node that is honest.

Buterin Discusses an Ethereum Rollup-Centric Roadmap, Big Block Chains, and Cross-Domain MEVs

Buterin’s recent blog post follows the discussions that took place at the end of November when Ethereum developers talked about concepts such as EIP-4488. The plan could reduce data transfer costs five times less, and Ethereum developer Tim Beiko shared his thoughts on EIP-4488 and lowering the costs of rollups. In the Endgame blog post, Buterin also talked about leveraging rollups and this technology’s “possible long-term future.”

“Ethereum is very well-positioned to adjust to this future world, despite the inherent uncertainty,” Buterin stresses. “The profound benefit of the Ethereum rollup-centric roadmap is that it means that Ethereum is open to all of the futures, and does not have to commit to an opinion about which one will necessarily win.” Buterin further added:

Ethereum researchers should think hard about what levels of decentralization in block production are actually achievable. It may not be worth it to add complicated plumbing to make highly decentralized block production easy if cross-domain MEV (or even cross-shard MEV from one rollup taking up multiple shards) make it unsustainable regardless.

In terms of “big block chains” Buterin says “there is a path for them to turn into something trustless and censorship-resistant, and we’ll soon find out if their core developers and communities actually value censorship resistance and decentralization enough for them to do it.” Buterin’s blog post ends by saying that “it will likely take years for all of this to play out.”

“Sharding and data availability sampling are complex technologies to implement. It will take years of refinement and audits for people to be fully comfortable storing their assets in a ZK-rollup running a full EVM,” Buterin’s Endgame post concludes. “And cross-domain MEV research too is still in its infancy. But it does look increasingly clear how a realistic but bright future for scalable blockchains is likely to emerge.”

What do you think about Vitalik Buterin’s Engame blog post concerning scaling and possible roadmaps? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.

Pepsi-Cola Celebrates the Soft Drink’s Birth Year With 1,893 Generative NFTs

Pepsi-Cola Celebrates the Soft Drink's Birth Year With 1,893 Generative NFTs

The carbonated soft drink manufacturer Pepsi has revealed the company is stepping into the world of blockchain with its first collection of non-fungible token (NFT) assets. Pepsi introduced the “Pepsi Mic Drop” genesis NFT collection on Thursday, which features 1,893 generative NFTs on the Ethereum blockchain. Pepsi aims to create a real-time community of NFT holders with the NFTs that feature designs like the classic blue Pepsi, silver Diet Pepsi, red Pepsi Wild Cherry, black Pepsi Zero Sugar, and Crystal Pepsi.

Pepsi Introduces the Company’s First NFT Collection

Pepsi-Cola is a well-known soft drink manufacturer that was created and developed back in 1893 by Caleb Bradham. When the soft drink first came out it was called “Brad’s Drink,” but was rebranded to Pepsi-Cola in 1898. These days both Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola are the two most popular cola-flavored drinks on the market.

In order to celebrate the birth year of Pepsi-Cola, Pepsi has launched a genesis collection of non-fungible token (NFT) collectibles. The collection is called the “Pepsi Mic Drop” genesis NFT collection and features 1,893 unique generative NFTs that feature variations of a microphone visual and iconic Pepsi flavors.

Pepsi-Cola Celebrates the Soft Drink's Birth Year With 1,893 Generative NFTs

The NFT collection from Pepsi is hosted on the web portal micdrop.pepsi.com and Vaynernft helped the company produce the NFT collectibles. The waitlist for a wallet will start on Friday, December 10 at 12:00 p.m. (EST) and the “approved will be able to mint their Pepsi Mic Drop genesis NFT free of charge (not including Ethereum gas fees) on Tuesday, December 14 at 12:30 p.m. (EST).”

“The exclusive generative traits of the Pepsi Mic Drop genesis NFT collection, generated randomly by an algorithm so each NFT is totally unique and different, pay homage to the brand’s storied history in music and the suite of Pepsi flavors that have captivated unapologetic cola-loving consumers for decades,” Pepsi’s NFT announcement details.

“Pepsi has always been a brand with a strong heritage in music and pop culture, so it’s only fitting for us to bring that legacy into the new world of NFTs with a ‘mic drop’ of epic proportions,” Todd Kaplan, Pepsi’s vice president of marketing said in a statement sent to Bitcoin.com News. Kaplan further added:

We created the Pepsi Mic Drop genesis NFT collection for our fans, putting their interests and needs at the forefront by ensuring the NFTs are all free of charge and presented equitably as an inclusive and accessible opportunity for anyone to experience the exciting world of NFTs. This collectible series of microphones is not only inspired by our history, but also represents the scale and scope of how accessible we see this space becoming in the future.

Pepsi follows the many brands getting into the NFT space including Arizona Iced Tea, Budweiser, Coca Cola, and more. For instance, the popular American-style pale lager produced by Anheuser-Busch, Budweiser, launched 1,936 NFTs last week to celebrate the birth of the Budweiser beer can.

Adidas revealed last week as well that the sneaker and sportswear company was teaming up with Bored Ape Yacht Club (BAYC). Concluding the announcement, Pepsi says that the firm is “implementing a carbon offset program for the launch of the Pepsi Mic Drop NFT to ensure a net carbon footprint of zero.”

What do you think about the Pepsi-Cola brand getting into NFTs? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.

Bitwise CIO Says $100K Bitcoin a Difficult Prediction to Make, Calls Ethereum the ‘Asset of the Year’

Bitwise CIO Says $100K Bitcoin a Difficult Prediction to Make, Calls Ethereum the 'Asset of the Year'

While there’s been an awful lot of calls for bitcoin to reach six-digits in value in 2021, as the end of the year draws closer, it doesn’t seem like $100K per bitcoin will happen. Bitwise Asset Management’s chief investment officer Matt Hougan told the press on Monday that “$100,000 by the end of the year is a difficult prediction to make.”

$100K Bitcoin Prices May Be Unattainable in 2021 — Bitwise Exec Says Next Year ‘Investors Are Going to Be Looking at Ethereum’

For a good portion of the year, many bitcoin advocates, experts, luminaries, and analysts predicted that bitcoin (BTC) would surely hit the $100K per unit range in 2021. One of the most popular forecasts belongs to Plan B, the creator of the stock-to-flow (S2F) bitcoin price model. Plan B said based on the pseudonymous analyst’s “worst case scenario for 2021 (price/on-chain based)” would be “Aug>47K, Sep>43K, Oct>63K, Nov>98K, Dec>135K.”

However, November’s price call missed and the $135K prediction looks like it will miss as well. Bitcoin would have to double in value over the next 24 days gathering a touch over 96% during that time. Plan B is not the only one that has predicted BTC could hit six-digits in USD value by the year’s end. The financial institution Standard Chartered predicted at the beginning of September that bitcoin’s value could reach $100K by the end of the year.

Yahoo Finance contributor, Javier David, said on October 21, that “suddenly, a bitcoin move to $100K doesn’t seem so farfetched.” In fact there’s a great number of analysts that have said that at some point in the future, bitcoin prices will touch the six-digit zone or $100,000 or more per unit. Speaking with Bloomberg’s Emily Chang, Bitwise Asset Management’s CIO Matt Hougan explains that bitcoin hitting $100K will be difficult in 2021. Hougan further explained that ethereum (ETH) was the “asset of the year” in 2021.

“I think as we look into 2022, we still have these fundamental drivers, the institutions we speak to every day at Bitwise,” Hougan explained. “$100,000 by the end of the year is a difficult prediction to make — I think $100,000 could be in target in 2022 but this year, I’m not so sure,” Hougan remarked.

Hougan Predicts an ‘Explosion of Activity Built on Ethereum’

As far as the second-largest crypto asset by market capitalization, ethereum (ETH), Hougan thinks 2021 was the digital currency’s year. While noting to Bloomberg’s Chang that ethereum was the “asset of the year,” Hougan also stressed that there will be an “explosion of activity built on Ethereum” next year. But investors will be looking at other smart contract blockchain networks as well, the Bitwise CIO said. Hougan added:

Investors are going to be looking at Ethereum, Solana, or Polygon. Investors are starting to realize there’s more to crypto than just Bitcoin. If there’s one bigger story for next year, it’s going to be everything else: crypto as defi, NFTs, Web3, or metaverse.

What do you think about the Bitwise CIO’s cryptocurrency predictions? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.

Delaying the Ice Age — Ethereum Network Participants Prep for Upcoming Arrow Glacier Upgrade

Delaying the Ice Age — Ethereum Network Participants Prep for Upcoming Arrow Glacier Upgrade

The Ethereum network will be undergoing a scheduled upgrade soon called “Arrow Glacier,” a change that aims to mimic the “Muir Glacier” upgrade. Essentially, Ethereum’s Arrow Glacier changes the parameters of the network’s Difficulty Bomb delay to June 2022. This will give the Ethereum network another six months until it leads to the “Ice Age” proof-of-stake (PoS) transition.

Arrow Glacier Aims to Postpone Ethereum’s Ice Age

At Ethereum block height 13,773,000 the network will implement the Arrow Glacier upgrade which aims to postpone Ethereum’s Difficulty Bomb. The bomb mechanism has been around since 2015 and makes the network’s mining difficulty increase over time. The end result will lead to the Ice Age, a moment in time when the blockchain stops proof-of-work (PoW) block production and the chain is 100% reliant on proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus.

The Difficulty Bomb was supposed to happen 4,000,000 blocks or 611 days after the Muir Glacier network upgrade. However, Arrow Glacier will push the bomb back further to June 2022. This will give ethereum PoW miners another six months to continue mining the Ethereum blockchain until the June 2022 change. Once the Difficulty Bomb does happen the mining difficulty will make it so PoW miners get phased out because it will be too difficult.

Arrow Glacier is expected to happen between now and Wednesday, December 8, 2021. “The Arrow Glacier network upgrade, similarly to Muir Glacier, changes the parameters of the Ice Age/Difficulty Bomb, pushing it back several months,” Ethereum developers expain. “This has also been done in the Byzantium, Constantinople and London network upgrades. No other changes are introduced as part of Arrow Glacier.” The announcement adds:

The Difficulty Bomb only affects proof-of-work networks, and hence only exists on the Ethereum mainnet and the Ropsten test network. With the recent progress towards Ethereum’s transition to proof-of-stake, it was decided to only delay the bomb on mainnet for now and to try and run the proof-of-stake transition on Ropsten before the bomb goes off on that network.

Ethereum Hashrate Taps All-Time High, Ether Is the Second-Most Profitable Coin to Mine in 2021

While Ethereum network participants have been waiting a long time for the Ice Age PoS transition, ethereum miners have been enjoying the PoW incentives. During the early morning hours of December 7, Ethereum’s hashrate reached 1 petahash per second (PH/s). The recorded metric is the highest the hashrate has ever been and currently Ethereum’s processing power is coasting along at 900 terahash per second (TH/s).

Additionally, besides kadena (KDA) mining, ethereum (ETH) mining is currently the second-most profitable cryptocurrency to mine today. At $0.12 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) and today’s ether exchange rates, a 1,500 megahash per second (MH/s) machine can get around $91 per day. Mining ethereum with the most profitable ether mining rig is 68.85% more profitable than mining bitcoin (BTC) with today’s best performing SHA256 bitcoin miner which gets a touch over $28 per day in profits.

What do you think about the upcoming Arrow Glacier upgrade? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.